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Shanmatha : Ganapathyam, Kaumaram, Vaishnavam, Saivam, Shaktham, Sowram

Shanmatha : Ganapathyam, Kaumaram, Vaishnavam, Saivam, Shaktham, Sowram




   
Uttar Pradesh
   

Uttar Pradesh, capital city Lucknow
Area: 294411 sq kms
Population: 139112287



Introduction
It is bound by Nepal on the north, and is surrounded by the states of Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar.

History
In the Vedic period (1500–600 BC), the area of Uttar Pradesh formed part of the ancient country known as Madhyadesa. Later such great Hindu kings as Asoka and Samudra Gupta ruled the area. In the 16th century it came under the rule of the Mughal emperors, who remained until the close of the 18th century. The British gradually extended their power west from Bengal in the 19th century, and Uttar Pradesh became the main scene of the Indian Mutiny of 1857 against British rule. The area was in the forefront of the Indian independence movement, and it became a state on Jan. 26, 1950, when India became a republic.

Geography
It is divisible into three distinct regions geographically; the Himalayan region on the north, the vast gangetic plain in the center, and the Vindhya Range and plateau on the south. Most of Uttar Pradesh consists of the vast Ganges plain, an area of awesome flatness, which often floods dramatically during the monsoon

Places of interest

Taj Mahal
The Taj Mahal. Sheer poetry in marble. Majesty and magnificence, unrivalled. The Taj Mahal, the one and only one of its kinds across the world. The monumental labour of love of a great ruler for his beloved queen. The ultimate realisation of Emperor Shahjahan's dream. One of the wonders of the world. From 1631 A.D., it took 22 years in the making. An estimated 20,000 people worked to complete the enchanting mausoleum, on the banks of the Yamuna.

River Fronts
The great river banks at Varanasi, built high with eighteenth and nineteenth-century pavilions and palaces, temples and terraces, are lined with an endless chain of stone steps – the ghats – progressing along the whole of the waterfront, altering in appearance with the dramatic seasonal fluctuations of the river level. Each of the hundred ghats, big and small, is marked by a lingam, and occupies its own special place in the religious geography of the city

The Kashi Vishwanath Temple
Also known as the Golden Temple, it is dedicated to Lord Shiva, the presiding deity of the city. Varanasi is said to be the point at which the first jyotirlinga, the fiery pillar of light by which Shiva manifested his supremacy over other gods, broke through the earth’s crust and flared towards the heavens. More than the Ghats and even the Ganga, the Shivalinga installed in the temple remains the devotional focus of Varanasi

Flora and Fauna
Trees like Deodar, Morinda, Raye, Kel etc. Also, the trees with large-sized leaves, like Mepal, Angu, Kharsu are found in this forest. Saal, Bamboo and Chid trees are found. Among the animal life one can see Black bucks, cheetal, tigers, sambar deer, wolfs, rhinoceros etc and bird life include Darter or Snake Bird, Brahminy Duck, Bittern, Large Cormorant etc

River and Lakes
The mighty rivers of the northern India - Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomati and Ghaghara, water Uttar Pradesh.

Major Crops
Uttar Pradesh is one of the largest producers of food grains, sugarcane and potatoes in the country

Weather and Climate
The entire state, except for the northern region, has a tropical monsoon climate. In the plains, January temperatures range from 12.5° to 17.5° C and May temperatures from 27.5° to 32.5° C, with a maximum of 45° C. From 85 to 90 percent of the annual rainfall comes during the rainy season from the Bay of Bengal summer monsoon. Rainfall varies from 40 to 80 inches (1,000 to 2,000 mm) in the east to 24 to 40 inches (600 to 1,000 mm) in the west.

People
Two ethnographic groups inhabit the state—Mongoloid peoples in the far north near the Tibetan border and Aryan-Dravidian people in the plains and the hill and plateau region of the central and southern part of the state

Religion
Hindus constitute more than 80 percent of the total population; Muslims, more than 15 percent; and other religious communities, including Sikhs, Christians, Jains, and Buddhists together, less than 1 percent. 

Festivals
Kartik Poornima
A dip in the Ganges on A dip in the Ganges on Kartik Poornima, is supposed to be very holy for the Hindus, and there are huge congregations at the ghats of the Ganga, on this occasion, is supposed to be very holy for the Hindus, and there are huge congregations at the ghats of the Ganga, on this occasion

Nanda Devi
A fair of great religious and cultural significance, it is held at Nanda Devi Temple in September to commemorate the memory of Goddesses Nanda and Sunanda. It is said to have started in Kumaon during the reign of Raja Kalyan Chand in the 16th century.
Nanda means prosperity and well-being. Nanda Devi Mela is held as a symbol of prosperity, both material and spiritual, of the hill regions.

Kumbh Mela
The month long Kumbh Mela of Allahabad is one of the largest fairs of the world and is attended by millions of pilgrims from all over India as well as the devout from the world over. Maha Kumbh is held after a gap of twelve years. Mela's history originates from the beginning of the Creation. All devtas were under the influence of a curse that made them weak and coward, Brahma, (the creator God) advised them to churn the ocean for Amrit (Nectar), intake of which will make them immortal, devtas sough the help of demons for the purpose. By their joint churning Amrit was one of the resultants, found in the last. Devtas fled with pitcher of Amrit and demons chased them. A battle ensured. During this, the pitcher of Amrit was kept at four places and few drops of amrit also fell at these places. One of these places was Prayag, Allahabad

Language
The common languages of this state are Hindi and Urdu. Nine types of Hindi dialect are spoken across the state. In the hill region of the state Kumaoni and Garhwali dialects are spoken around Mathura, Meerut, Farrukhabad districts and Bundelkhand areas of the state.

Costume
Men generally wear kurta-pyjama or dhoti or sadri, while the apparels of women vary according to the region. Sari is the most popular attire, but the women-folk of the hills like to wear angra, ghaghara and chadara.

Culture
Music and dance are a way of life as far as the people of Uttar Pradesh are concerned. Kathak, one of the four classical dances of India, originated here. Ramlila, Rasalila, Nautankis and folk dances of Kumaon hills (Jhora, Chhapeli, Jagar) are all dances that reflect the lifestyle and beliefs of the people. 

Food 
Most families in Uttar Pradesh eat vegetarian food, although meat delicacies of the Awadh style of cooking are world famous. Average cuisines in Uttar Pradesh revolve around the simple, vegetables curries of all kinds. But there is a predominance of fried foods like the tasty `kachori' and `puri', which are a must especially during festivities.

Handicrafts

Agra's Zardoji
Agra's Zardoji is very unique art of embroidery in three dimensions. The artist first makes free hand sketches of these subjects. Then he embroiders in cotton threads over and over till he gets the required thickness and movements. Finally the artists take fibre from silk threads, twists then together in the shades required for and embroiders with them the particular piece. 

Chikan Work
Chikan’, ‘Chikin’ or ‘Chikeen’. It means a kind of cloth wrought with needle–work. The light chikan saris are perfect for summer wear. Men prefer to wear their chikan kurtas during summer evenings. The source of most design motifs in Chikankari is Mughal. These motifs can also be seen in the ornamentation of Mughal buildings like the Taj Mahal and the monuments of 

Fatehpur Sikri.
There are various stitches used in Chikankari. They vary according to the kind of designs and materials used. The most frequently used stitch is the satin stitch. This is a very delicate and minute stitch. 

Zari work
The ancient tradition of weaving is more preserved in Banaras than anywhere else. The main products are Zari and brocades. 
Brocades are textiles woven with warp & weft threads of different colors and often of different materials. The brocades are woven in silk with profuse use of metal threads in ‘pallars’ (endpieces) and the field of the sari. The zari thread known as ‘kalabuttum’, consists of finely drawn gold, silver or base metal threads wound round as silk thread

Carpets and Floor Coverings
They have some special designs of their own like the Taj Mahal, in natural colour or any tint, Sirdar in plain body and subdued colours with hand embossed or hand carved borders in rose-beige, honey-beige, ivory and soft green. They also make use of the 18th century designs with short clippings of the yarn around the contours of the pattern to give it a sculptured look. Mostly pastel shades are used but intermingled with bright colours.


 

 

 



   

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